Projects

International

Ekologické a geografické vlastnosti a hlavné migračné cesty inváznych rastlín v pohraničnej oblasti Ukrajiny a Slovenska
Ecological and geographical peculiarities and main migration ways of invasive plant species in the border area of Ukraine and Slovakia
Program: Bilaterálne – iné
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Májeková Jana PhD.
Annotation: The project is intended to clarify the main factors playing the key role in modern dynamic trends of invasive species in the border area of Ukraine and Slovakia. These data will form the scientific foundations of monitoring of invasive species and control of their dispersal. As a result of the joint Ukrainian-Slovak project, ecological, coenological and geographical peculiarities of invasive species on the border area of Ukraine and Slovakia will be established, and for the first time the expansion trends and main migration routes of invasive species in the regions will be assessed.
Duration: 6.4.2017 – 31.12.2019
Konverzia poznatkov na zlepšenie riadenia európskych pobrežných ekosystémov a služieb – COST
Knowledge conversion for enhancing management of European riparian ecosystems and services
Program: COST
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Šibíková Petrášová Mária PhD.
Duration: 9.11.2017 – 8.11.2021
MOBILISE – Mobilizácia dát, pravidiel a expertov vo vedeckých zbierkach
Mobilising Data, Policies and Experts in Scientific Collections
Program: COST
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: prof. RNDr. Marhold Karol CSc.
Annotation: European Natural Science Collections host approximately 1.5 billion biological and geological collection objects, which represent about 80% of the known current and past biological and geological diversity on earth. The scope of this MOBILISE is to foster a cooperative network in Europe to support excellent research activities, and facilitate knowledge and technology transfer around natural science collections. This will prepare the ground for a future pan-European Distributed System of Scientific Collections.The COST Action MOBILISE will: (1) Facilitate the transfer of knowledge and technology between researchers, domain specialists, data aggregators and industry by networking activities, events, workshops and trainings (“Open to the world”)(2) Promote the development of innovative techniques and coordinated prioritisation to increase efficiency of large scale collection digitisation and mobilisation (“Open innovation”)(3) Raise awareness about the need in science and society that, apart from physical access, sustainable data access infrastructures are an integral component of biodiversity research (“Open access”)
Duration: 1.10.2018 – 1.10.2022
iPLANTA – Modifikácia rastlín na produkciu interferujúcej RNA
Modifying plants to produce interfering RNA
Program: COST
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: doc. Ing. Moravčíková Jana PhD.
Annotation: Modern research has identified the high potential of carnivorous plants for biotechnological use. However, regulatory mechanisms in biological and metabolic processes in these plants have not yet been elucidated. Different types of small RNA have an important role in these processes. These molecules regulate various aspects of plant developmental processes and are also involved in regulating the response of plants to environmental stress. The project focuses on the isolation and analysis of these molecules in Drosera plants. Insulating kits and available protocols will be the starting point, but the optimization of procedures will be necessary for the problem of these plants\’ knits. The obtained protocols for the isolation and analysis of small RNAs are a prerequisite for research into the regulation of individual processes in carnivorous plants such as prey digestion or nutrient recovery, environmental stress responses.
Duration: 27.10.2016 – 26.10.2020
BENDIS – Nová generácia rastlinných biostimulátorov založená na strigolaktónoch viazaných na nanočastice
A next generation plant biostimulant based on strigolactones included into stimuli responsive nanoformulation
Program: Horizont 2020
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Matúšová Radoslava PhD.
Annotation: The BENDIS project aims to integrate technologies for the industrial production of a next generation plant biostimulant based on strigolactones (SL) analogs and mimics, included into a stimulus controlled release nanoformulation. A better harnessing of exogenously applied SL analogues/mimics requires such formulations, which protect SL from rapid degradation and promote their steady release at the biologically active concentrations under controlled conditions – i.e. root mediated pH changes in the soil.
Duration: 1.2.2018 – 31.1.2019
Optimalizácia podmienok pre in vitro množenie a kultiváciu netradičných odrôd ovocných lián Actinidia arguta a Schisandra chinensis (ukrajinský výber)
The optimization of the conditions for in vitro reproduction and cultivation of non-traditional fruit lianes Actinidia arguta and Schisandra chinensis cultivars (Ukrainian selection)
Program: Bilaterálne – iné
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Libiaková Gabriela CSc.
Annotation: This project will initiate cooperation between Institutions in the area of plant micropropagation and will promote level of research. The realization of the project will enable to successfully propagate and cultivate the valuable species for human health (Actinidia arguta and Schizandra chinensis), which will have commercial effect and social and ecological value.
Duration: 6.4.2017 – 6.4.2019
Pozoruhodné prvky lichenobioty významných biotopov Slovenska a Českej republiky projektu SAV-AV ČR 16-07
Remarkable elements of lichenbiota of important biotopes of Slovakia and the Czech Republic (SAV-AV ČR 16-07
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Košuthová Alica PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 – 31.12.2018
Príspevok BÚ SAV k medzinárodnému projektu Millenium Seed Bank
Contribution of IB SAS to the international project Millenium Seed Bank
Program: Iné
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Ing. Kučera Jaromír PhD.
Annotation: The MSB project is the largest ex situ plant conservation programme in the world. Project focus is on global plant life faced with the threat of extinction and plants of most use for the future. The seeds we save are conserved in seed banks as an insurance against the risk of extinction in their native habitat. Working with network of partners across 80 countries, were successfully banked over 13% of the world\’s wild plant species. The main goal of the project is to save 25% of those species with bankable seeds by 2020 (75,000 species). IB SAS coordinate seeds colection actvities in Slovakia. Target taxa for seed collecting are endemics, endangered and invasive plants. Seeds are stored at MSB Kew and at Gene Bank in Piešťany. Since 2007 were collected and stored from Slovakia 752 taxa. In future we plan to cover with cooperation of several Institutions from relevant countries whole Carpathians area as well as Balkan Peninsula.
Duration: 1.1.2007 – 31.12.2020
Reštitúcia jesetera malého v rakúskom úseku Dunaja – LIFE
Restoration of sterlet populations in the Austrian Danube – LIFE
Program: LIFE
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Pekárik Ladislav PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2015 – 31.12.2021
NATURAsat – Softvérové nástroje na monitorovanie biotopov NATURA 2000 satelitnými snímkami
Software tools for monitoring NATURA 2000 habitats by satellite images
Program: European Space Agency (ESA)
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Šibíková Petrášová Mária PhD.
Annotation: The objective of the project is to exactly localize and classify NATURA 2000 habitats in territory of Slovakia and to monitor their dynamics and qualitative changes by dedicated image segmentation software. The localization, classification and dynamic space-time segmentation and tracking will be based on processing and analysis of Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar data (SAR), Sentinel-2 multispectral imaging data and its combination. We will provide proof-of-concept and feasibility of our strategies for NATURA 2000 habitats classification and monitoring their dynamics by using the Earth observation data. To that goal we shall develop software prototype suitable for botanists and nature conservationists. We will also identify potential software users among environmental organizations in Slovakia. The proposed project represents preparatory activity, a feasibility study of suggested research concept and software development. The outputs will be novel at the world-wide level, with great potential to be used not only in Slovakia but across the whole Europe. This preparatory study will lead to future R&D projects with the aim to develop alpha and beta versions of dedicated software for segmentation and tracking of NATURA 2000 habitats.
Duration: 1.12.2017 – 30.11.2019
Somatická embryogenéza vybraných druhov ihličnatých drevín: indukcia embryogénnych pletív, ich udržiavanie, maturácia somatických embryí a regenerácia rastlín
Somatic embryogenesis in selected conifer species: initiation of embryogenic tissues, their maintenance, maturation of somatic embryos and plantlet regeneration
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Salaj Terézia DrSc.
Annotation: Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an in vitro process of embryo differentiation from somatic cells of a plant body. In conifers the process involves several steps as: initiation of embryogenic tissues, their maintenance, somatic embryo maturation and plantlet (somatic seedlings) regeneration. Each step requires specific conditions and is affected by several factors. The submitted proposal intends to study the individual steps of SE, mostly the effect of primary explant developmental stage, plant growth regulators influence as well as osmotic potential of the culture medium. Species as Abies alba, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra will be included as experimental material.
Duration: 1.1.2016 – 31.12.2018
Stresom-indukovaná expresia arabinogalaktanov a obranné proteíny v súvislosti s iniciáciou androgenézy
Stress-inducible expression of arabinogalactans and defence-related proteins in relation to androgenesis initiation
Program: Medziakademická dohoda (MAD)
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: doc. Ing. Moravčíková Jana PhD.
Annotation: Understanding of mechanisms leading to plant embryogenesis under inducible stress conditions (e.g. temperature and/or osmotic stress) at the molecular level is crucial in crop improvement. To overcome resistance of genotypes to microspore embryogenesis (ME) under in vitro conditions, selectable markers for responsiveness/recalcitrance are essential to be identified. Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs, PR3; chitinases) involved in the plant defence (a)biotic responses with arabinogalactans (AGPs), probably functioned in cell division, differentiation and development, seem to be good candidates. The aim of this project is to characterize the expression of PR3 and AGPs in relation to ME induction effectiveness in rye (Secale cereale L.).
Duration: 1.1.2016 – 31.12.2018
Úloha Clavariaceae (huby) v travinných ekosytémoch
Role of Clavariaceae (fungi) in grassland ecosystems
Program: Bilaterálne – iné
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Adamčík Slavomír PhD.
Duration:
DNAqua-Net – Vývoj nových genetických nástrojov na hodnotenie stavu bioty vodných ekosystémov Európy
Developing new genetic tools for bioassessment of aquatic ecosystems in Europe
Program: COST
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Čiampor Fedor PhD.
Project web page: http://www.cost.eu/COST_Actions/ca/CA15219, http://www.dnaqua.net
Duration: 20.10.2016 – 19.10.2020

National

Aktivácia, regulácia a kontrola bunkových mechanizmov v suspenznej kultúre a intaktných rastlinách tabaku elicitovaných mykotoxínmi húb rodu Fusarium
Activation, regulation and control of cellular mechanisms in suspension culture and intact tobacco plants elicited with mycotoxins of genus Fusarium
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Repka Vladimír CSc.
Annotation: In terms of food safety, the focus was primarily on the study of the effects of mycotoxins on the biological activity of the cells of animals. Recently, it is beginning to examine the effect of mycotoxins on the plant, particularly the agronomically interesting. The project aims to physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis of basal cell mechanisms of tobacco plants exposed to different fusariotoxins. We will follow anatomic changes in elicited cells, the role of active oxygen species in the process of perception and pharmacological modulation of the responses to mycotoxins elicitation. We will focus on a comparative analysis of regulatory and signaling cascades involved in the response of cells to various fusariotoxins. We will monitor the expression of genes and proteins, as well as the activity of enzymes responsible for the activation, regulation and control of cell response to mycotoxins, which will bring new insights into understanding the principle mechanisms in respect to biotic stress.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2020
Bioekologická štúdia taxónov rodu Soldanella sekcia Soldanella (Primulaceae) na území Karpát, Hercýnskych pohorí a Východných Álp
Bioecological study of the genus Soldanella section Soldanella (Primulaceae) in the Carpathians, the Hercynian Mts. and Eastern Alps
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Slovák Marek PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2015 – 31.12.2018
Biosystematické štúdium karpatsko-panónskych zástupcov rodu Sesleria (Poaceae)
Biosystematic study of Carpatho-Pannonian representatives of the genus Sesleria (Poaceae)
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Majerová Monika PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 – 31.12.2019
Cyanobaktérie a sprievodné riasy pri tvorbe recentných sladkovodných stromatolitov
Cyanobacteria and accompanying algae in formation of recent freshwater stromatolites
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Hindáková Alica PhD.
Annotation: The main scientific goal of the project is to study biodiversity of dominant cyanobacteria recently forming stromatolites in Slovakia. According to our preliminary studies, these specific calcified colonies are composed mainly by genera Rivularia (R. haematites), and by Calothrix, Scytonema, Stigonema and some other oscillatorian species as well. The material is being continuosly collected from recently active travertine localities in Slovakia. Molecular analysis of collected microorganisms and subcultures will confirm morfology based on contemporaly taxonomy. Obtained molecular data will be compared with data from various database in Europe. Accompanying cyanobacteria (e.g. from the genera Chroococcus, Merismopedia, Leptolyngbya, Heteroleibleinia, Nostoc) and algae (diatoms, chlorococcal and trichal green algae) of stromatolites will be studied, too. Material preserved by formaldehyde, microphotos and permanent diatom slides serve for determination, documentary and comparatively purposes. Localities with recent formation of freshwater stromatolites belong to the endangered biotopes, very sensitive to eutrophisation and human activities, therefore their protection is highly topic.
Duration: 1.1.2015 – 31.12.2018
Distribučný potenciál rôznych trofických skupín húb v Európe
Distribution potential of different fungal trophic groups in Europe
Program: APVV
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Adamčík Slavomír PhD.
Duration: 1.7.2016 – 30.6.2020
Diverzita a disperzia v metapopuláciách a metaspoločenstvách malých vodných biotopov
Diversity and dispersal in metapopulations and metacommunities of small aquatic biotopes
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Čiamporová – Zaťovičová Zuzana PhD.
Annotation: Project is aimed at small aquatic biotopes, very important regarding their biodiversity, yet often overlooked and understudied. Project is logically linked to previous projects of team members. Proposed is reasonable improvement of datasets on communities of natural biotopes in lowland and mountain regions, new data will be acquired on human impacted areas, including robust environmental data. Macrophytes, molluscs, zooplankton and aquatic insects were chosen as model groups due to their indication value, different ecological requirements and function in food webs. Main goal is to understand patterns of biological diversity of small water bodies, emphasizing 1) evaluation of the importance of different biotope types for biodiversity preservation, 2) assessment of dispersal and habitat features roles in metacommunity structure and 3) describing extent of connectivity within metapopulations. Reaching the goals will improve effective conservation of aquatic ecosystems – important component of global environment.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2020
Diverzita a klasifikácia európskej travinno-bylinnej vegetácie
Diversity and classification of European grassland vegetation
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Janišová Monika PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2015 – 31.12.2018
DNA Barkoding Elmidae – využitie molekulárnej taxonómie v poznaní biodiverzity vodných chrobákov
DNA Barcoding Elmidae – application of molecular taxonomy for description of aquatic beetles biodiversity
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Čiampor Fedor PhD.
Annotation: The beetles play a key role in the ecosystem functioning and they are also important for monitoring impacts of environmental changes. Even studied intensively, the identification of beetle species often remains problematic. However, development of robust DNA barcode database could help overcome this problem. The main source of DNA barcodes is the project Barcode of Life, including ca. 4,5 million of sequences. There are 464 sequences of ca 30 Elmidae species, small fraction of about 1500 known species. The goal of this project is taxonomic analysis of uniquely rich material of Elmidae, producing and analysis of new DNA barcodes (min 1000 new sequences), thorough comparisons of taxonomic results gained using morphological and molecular characters (estimating applicability of DNA barcodes for elmid taxonomy), new taxa description, phylogeny of taxa studied, evaluation of relationships between species and genetic diversity and evaluation of Elmidae DNA barcode data applicability in monitoring and conservation.
Duration: 1.1.2016 – 31.12.2019
Druhová bohatosť synúzie vyšších rastlín bukových lesov pozdĺž výškového gradientu
Species richness of vascular plants in undestory of beech forests along altitudinal gradient
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Valachovič Milan CSc.
Annotation: Beech forests represent the most widespread forest vegetation type in Slovakia with an important sientific and socio-economic value. Species richness trend of vascular plants along altitudinal gradient reflects strong competitive ability of the European beech. The project is focused on i) species richness-altitudinal relationship at various spatial scales, and ii) potential factors controlling this interaction.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2020
Dynamika antropicky ovplyvnených biotopov nelesnej vegetácie v procese ekologickej obnovy
Dynamics of human-altered non-forest habitats in the process of ecological restoration
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Škodová Iveta PhD.
Annotation: Many semi-natural grasslands in the whole Europe are in unfavourable conservation status due to succession changes induced by land abandonment. Project aims to test various management treatments in the ecological restoration of semi-dry, mesic and fen grasslands and to set the conditions for their application. It also tries to test new methods for the elimination of expansive grass species in various ecological conditions. It is also focused on the evaluation of changes after a large-scale restoration. Among the project goals there is also monitoring of temporal dynamics and vegetation changes in anthropogenic non-forest habitats to estimate future trends in grassland vegetation. Project is logically related to several past projects focused on grassland vegetation in Slovakia (SK0115, VEGA 0181/09, VEGA 0099/13), when the network of field experiments was established to study relation between management and species composition (vegetation diversity).
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2020
Flóra Slovenska – čeľaď Asteraceae (1. časť): biosystematické štúdium kritických taxónov
Flora of Slovakia – Asteraceae family (first part): biosystematic study of critical taxa
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Mereďa Pavol PhD.
Annotation: The project is focused on taxonomic and chorological revision of selected representatives of the Asteraceae family in Slovakia, or in the wider Central European region, respectively. The main result of the project will be the next series of multivolume work Flora of Slovakia, volume VI/2 (Part 1). Due to the high species richness of this family in Slovakia only its initial tribes, namely Anthemideae, Astereae, Caleduleae, Gnaphalieae, and Senecioneae (with about 50 genera and 165 species) will be addressed in the project. Each taxon will be treated in terms of nomenclature, morphology, karyology, ecology, and chorology. Important part of the publication will be the identification keys (in Slovak and English), original drawings of plants, and maps showing distribution of taxa in Slovakia. Special attention will be paid to taxonomically complex groups of the genera Achillea, Aster s. l., Senecio s. l., Solidago, and Tephroseris, where we plan more detailed systematic, biogeographic, and evolutionary studies published in separate papers.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2020
Funkčná a taxonomická diverzita mokradí a ich vzťah k ekosystémovým procesom
Functional and taxonomic diversity of wetlands and their relationship to ecosystem processes
Program: APVV
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Ing. Hrivnák Richard PhD.
Annotation: Functional diversity is a component of biodiversity that generally concerns the range of things that organisms doin ecosystems. The relationship between taxonomic and functional diversity is virtually unknown in the most ofecosystems. The proposed project is focused on functional biodiversity of wetland communities and itsrelationship with taxonomic diversity and ecosystem processes. Proposed project is based on the study of threeecosystem processes of key importance in wetlands: decomposition rate, primary productivity and invasibility.Pond-dwelling communities of plant and macroinvertebrates are proposed here as a model system for theresearch with the following aims:1) To evaluate the effect of environment and diversity (functional and taxonomic) on ecosystem processes2) To assess the response of taxonomic and functional diversity to human influence
Duration: 1.7.2017 – 30.6.2021
ROLOFSYTS – Funkčná analýza synaptotagmínov so zreteľom na odpovede rastlín na environmentálne stresy
Functional analysis of synaptotagmins in responses of plants to environmental stresses
Program: APVV
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Doc. RNDr. Jásik Ján CSc.
Annotation: Crop yields are largely dependent on their tolerances to environmental influences, including salinity. Previously, we have shown that the Arabidopsis synaptotagmin 1 (AtSYT1), the most abundantly expressed Arabidopsis ortholog of the well-known calcium sensors in animal neurons, is involved in responses to abiotic stresses. The general goal of this proposal is to reveal the mechanisms by which AtSYTs regulate the reactions to high salinity and other stresses. We wish to characterize AtSYTs expression, describe phenotype of Atsyts mutant lines, to study subcellular localisation of AtSYTs, and to monitor intracellular dynamics of AtSYT1. Additionally, we shall address the functional analysis of the interaction fished out in the yeast two hybrid assay connecting AtSYT1 to the MAPK cascade. Our study will contribute to the overall understanding of how membrane trafficking is involved in stress responses.
Duration: 1.6.2017 – 30.6.2021
Hybridné roje borovice lesnej a borovice horskej-kosodreviny na Slovensku
Hybrid swarms of Scots pine and mountain dwarf pine in Slovakia
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Kormuťák Andrej DrSc.
Annotation: The project is oriented towards experimental verification of hybridological relationship between Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and mountain dwarf pine (P. mugo Turra). Within putative hybrid swarms of these species in northern Slovakia, the extent of introgressive hybridization with the parental species mentiontd above will be determined. Except for the classical approaches of artificial hybridization, the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) is expected to be used in verification of both the interspecific and intraspecific hybrids of these pines. The degree of genetic divergence between hybrid swarms and natural populations of both parental species will be determined using cpDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. The project aims in validation of the hybrid nature of the putative hybrid swarms on the localities in Zuberec – Medzi Bormi, Suchá Hora and Terchová – Sokolie all of which are taken for rare endemites on our territory.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2019
dyNatura2000sat – Identifikácia a monitoring biotopov Natura 2000 pomocou dynamickej segmentácie satelitných obrazov
Identification and monitoring Natura 2000 habitats by dynamic segmentation of satellite images
Program: APVV
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Šibík Jozef PhD.
Annotation: Project aims to build novel botanical, environmental, mathematical and computational methods for determining exact localization and classification of Natura 2000 habitats and for monitoring their dynamics and qualitative changes by using satellite data and dedicated image processing software. The localization, classification and dynamic space-time monitoring will be based on novel methods for filtering, segmentation and tracking of Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, Sentinel-2 multispectral imaging data and their combination. The image processing software will allow accurate localization of Natura 2000 habitat areas in static and dynamic Earth observation data up to a precision of pixel resolution. Moreover, by the developed software we will be able to monitor continuously the habitat dynamics with alarming option in case of abrupt changes in condition or fragmentation of Natura 2000 protected areas. The methods and software will be developed for localization, classification and monitoring of Natura 2000 habitats in the territory of the Slovak Republic. As the other EU member states are also required to monitor their Natura 2000 habitats, and Slovak Vegetation Database, used for development of our methods and software, is compatible with the databases used in other countries, our methods and software will fit the European Vegetation Database and will have a strong potential to be used for identification and tracking Natura 2000 habitats at least at the European level.
Duration: 1.7.2017 – 30.6.2021
Interakcie oxidu dusnatého, fytohormónov a aktívnych foriem kyslíka v odpovedi koreňa jačmeňa na ťažké kovy
Nitric oxide, phytohormones and reactive oxygen species interactions in barley root responses to heavy metals
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Tamás Ladislav PhD.
Annotation: Survival of terrestrial plants relies on highly coordinated signalling mechanisms to adjust their morphology and metabolism to ever-changing environment. It is well known that hormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the regulation of plant stress responses. In recent years, nitric oxide (NO) signalling was implicated in the modulation of both ROS and hormonal equilibrium in different plant species under various stress conditions. Components of the same as well as the distinct signalling pathways intensively interact among themselves integrating the internal ontogenic and external signals into morphogenic and metabolic responses in order to maximize survivability also under extreme conditions. In order to gain more insight into the role of NO in the interaction of hormones and ROS, the aim of the present project is the analysis of potential relationships between NO, ROS and hormones in the regulation of heavy metal-induced responses in barley root tip.
Duration: 1.1.2016 – 31.12.2019
Mäsožravé rastliny – perspektívny zdroj génov pre hydrolytické enzýmy s antifungálnym potenciálom
Carnivorous plants – prospective source of genes for hydrolytic enzymes with antifungal potential
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Ing. Libantová Jana CSc.
Annotation: Chitinases play a role in the development and physiology of plants and in stress responses. The model object of this project is a carnivorous plant, Drosera rotundifolia L., from which the gene for chitinase (DrChit) involved in digestive processes of prey was isolated. As chitinous cell wall of fungal pathogens is also degraded by chitinases that are expressed during the plant defense, the DrChit has a potential use in biotechnology aimed at the plant resistance reinforcement. Here we focus on the isolation and purification of DrChit protein, its biochemical characterization and antifungal potential determination. Next, we will isolate and characterize the other genes with the carnivorous expression profile. To clarify the role of chitinases in defense, the chitinase expression profiles in embryogenic cultures of conifers exposed to abiotic stress will be evaluated as well. We suppose these results may contribute to the development of strategies for plant resistance to stress by genetic engineering approach.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2019
Mikropropagácia a kryoprezervácia menej známych druhov drobného ovocia
Micropropagation and cryopreservation of less known small fruit species
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Gajdošová Alena CSc.
Annotation: Berry fruits are characterized by high nutritional value and are considered as nutraceutical food. In spite of the increasing demand for berry fruits on the market their cultivation is not spread in Slovakia because of the lack of planting material of wider cultivar assortment and its high price. Rapid and profitable clonal propagation of planting material is possible to reach using tissue cultures. The project will be focused i) on elaboration of systems for micropropagation of some introduced less known small fruit species (Vaccinium, Rubus, Lonicera, Amelanchier spp.) utilizable in large-scale propagation of planting material; ii) on development of protocol for long-term storage of small fruit genetic resources by cryopreservation; iii) on testing of genetic fidelity of in vitro derived and after cryopreservation regenerated plants using molecular markers, what enables to evaluate suitability of elaborated protocols for their application for routine propagation and long-term storage of genetic resources.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2020
Molekulárne metódy v šľachtení prirodzene bezlepkového amarantu
Molecular methods in breeding of naturally gluten free amaranth
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Ing. Hricová Andrea PhD.
Annotation: The efficient and high-throughput methods of current biology significantly reduce plant breeding process andallow to very precisely define valuable original plant material that can be obtained also by using modernbiotechnology approaches. These tools are great value to support conventional breeding for sustainable foodproduction especially under the climate change and meet demand over growing human population. By couplingthese modern approaches we will contribute to knowledge on genome and proteome of amaranth (Amaranth sp.),naturally gluten-free pseudocereal with exceptional nutrition attributes, that is becoming more recognized andappreciated in a diet. Main purpose of the project will be extensive characterization of first Slovak amaranthvariety PRIBINA as well as the other mutants previously generated by mutation breeding. Based on positivelychanged traits we will select another mutant lines, insert them to variety evaluation process to be registered asnew varieties.
Duration: 1.1.2016 – 31.12.2018
Odkrývanie procesov zodpovedných za súčasný geografický areál symbiotických organizmov s Mediteránnym rozšírením
Unraveling processes responsible for the contemporary geographic range of symbiotic organisms with Mediterranean distribution
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Bérešová Anna PhD.
Annotation: Lichenization is one of the most successful fungal nutritional strategies that also enable lichens to adapt to changing ecological conditions. The aim of the project is to find out, whether symbiotic interactions play any role in shaping lichen distributional range. We focus on model lichens with Mediterranean distribution. We aim to find out whether photobiont diversity matches the so far unrecognized genetic diversity of the mycobiont across its distributional range. In particular, we will search for an evidence of photobiont switching, which can be a driver for increase in ecological plasticity of some lichen species.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2020
Polyploidia a alopatrická diferenciácia ako mechanizmy speciácie v čeľadi Brassicaceae
Polyploidy and allopatric differentiation as speciation drivers in the Brassicaceae family
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Španiel Stanislav PhD.
Annotation: In the project we will study polyploid origins, phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history in species complexes from three Brassicaceae genera: Alyssum, Odontarrhena and Cardamine. We aim to generalize the observed patterns and elucidate major evolutionary processes that have driven diversification and speciation in these polyploid species groups. We will also revise controversial species circumscriptions and propose new taxonomic treatments. A combination of multiple methods will be used: multivariate morphometrics, flow cytometric ploidy level screening, and DNA sequencing of different target regions (including a high-throughput sequencing method). We will also develop an online karyological and nomenclatural database of the tribe Cardamineae that will help to stimulate further evolutionary studies in this group. Our studies will contribute to better understanding of plant evolution and to effective conservation of species diversity of the studied genera.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2020
SiliToxi – Potenciál kremíka na zmiernenie toxicity arzénu a antimónu pri kultúrnych rastlinách
Potential of silicon for mitigation of arsenic and antimony toxicity in agricultural crops
Program: APVV
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Vaculík Marek PhD.
Annotation: Contamination by arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is not only a serious environmental problem in highly-industrialized countries of the world, however also in Slovakia, mainly due to mining and power industry. The sites contaminated by these elements can be found across the whole Slovakia, from Malé Karpaty Mountains, Horná Nitra region, Liptov region to surrounding of Košice city in east Slovakia. As and Sb belong to toxic and dangerous elements for all living organisms. Despite an intensive research in the last years there is still only limited knowledge about the effect and phytotoxicity of As and Sb, and especially on interaction of toxic (As, Sb) and beneficial (Si) metalloids in plants what is the research aspect of this project. Therefore, the main aim of this project is to obtain a complex characterization of beneficial effects of Si on toxicity of individual elements and their combination on molecular-biological, biochemical, anatomical-morphological and physiological level. As a model object, important agricultural crops will be investigated.
Duration: 1.8.2018 – 30.6.2022
POLYPLOID – Pôvod polyploidných komplexov: úloha polyploidizácie a geografickej a ekologickej izolácie
The origin of polyploid complexes: the role of polyploidization, geographical and ecological isolation
Program: APVV
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: prof. RNDr. Marhold Karol CSc.
Annotation: The main topics of the proposed project are microevolutionary and speciation processes in diploid-polyploid complexes belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Speciation both at the diploid and polyploid levels will be examined, elucidating the role of genome merge and duplication, geographical and ecological separation. The questions addressed have broader relevance, beyond the studied genera, and the answers can help us better understand processes underlying polyploid speciation as such. The methods applied in this project will include both conventional molecular systematics markers, as well as methods based on the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), namely restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) and combination of target enrichment of low-copy nuclear genes and genome skimming (Hyb-seq). Using the multi-marker approach we expect to gain deeper insights into the studied species complexes and increased robustness of the results. As a complement, flow-cytometric, morphometric, and ecological and climatic niche analyses will be employed. In order to achieve these goals we have chosen four genera from three different tribes of the Brassicaceae family (Alysseae [Alyssum, Odontarrhena], Camelineae [Arabidopsis], Cardamineae [Cardamine]), representing different evolutionary lineages in this family. We will take the advantage of the wealth of methods that are available for and already tested in the closely related genus Arabidopsis, our previous long-term experience with the proposed study genera, and also previously collected plant material.
Duration: 1.8.2018 – 31.7.2022
Prečo sú niektoré druhy úzko endemické a iné široko rozšírené? Štúdium významu biologických vlastností a genetickej variability v troch skupinách blízko príbuzných taxónov z čeľade Asteraceae
Why are some species narrowly endemic while their congeners are geographically widespread? Role of biological traits and genetic variability studied in the three groups of the closely related taxa from the family Asteraceae
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Šingliarová Barbora PhD.
Annotation: The project aims at study of determinants of species rarity in thethree model groups from the family Asteraceae (Tephroseris longifolia agg., Cyanus napulifer group and Pilosella alpicola group) by comparing various biological traits and genetic diversity of the rare (often endemic) and widespread congeners. A combined approach including geneticanaly sesemploy in ghighly variable molecular markers (AFLP, SSRs) as well as analyses of fitness, ecological niche and spreading potential (by common garden experiments, GIS digitallayers, soil analyses) will be applied. Results of the project will bring valuable information on specific factors determining range size in selected plant groups from Asteraceae family, but also help to find common features and more general regularities in unravelled patterns and processes. Moreover, outputs of this project will serve as a baseline for conservation recommendations as each of systematic groups investigated harbours also taxa endangered by recent human activities.
Duration: 1.1.2015 – 31.12.2018
Skríning a transformácia dát z modelových centier biodiverzity pre pochopenie ekologických a fylogenetických vzťahov vybraných vzácnych a ohrozených druhov húb
Screening and transformation of data of model centers of biodiversity for understanding of ecological and phylogenetical relationships of rare and endangered species of fungi
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Kučera Viktor PhD.
Annotation: Fungi represent one of the richest groups of organisms (estimation 1.5 mil. species) and are also endangered by human activities. Decrease or spread of species could significantly influence biodiversity and cause negative changes in biological systems. Because knowledge of biodiversity and distribution, and taxonomy of rare and endangered species of fungi may contribute significantly to accurate management of the environment, endangered species of fungi listed in the Red list of fungi of Slovakia are the target group for this project. Material collected in selected model centers of biodiversity will be studied by morphometric and molecular methodologies. Joint research will allow to share facilities of the partner institutions and to train young researchers in field and analytical methodologies. Results of the project will be presented in scientific journals and on conferences, and they will be implemented also in management strategies and in selection of Important Fungus Areas (IFA).
Duration: 1.1.2015 – 31.12.2018
Synantropizácia lesných spoločenstiev: analýza faktorov ovplyvňujúcich výskyt nepôvodných druhov rastlín v lesoch
Synanthropisation of the forest communities: Analysis of factors affecting distribution of alien plants in forests
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Jarolímek Ivan CSc.
Duration: 1.1.2015 – 31.12.2018
Systematika a fylogenéza rodu Dermoloma v Európe a Severnej Amerike
Systematics and phylogeny of the genus Dermoloma in Europe and North America
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Adamčík Slavomír PhD.
Annotation: Dermoloma is insufficiently known genus of basidiomycetes classified in the order Agaricales (Agaricomycotina). More than 30 species are described worldwide, but only few of them are generally accepted. Opinions about morphological delimitation and number of the species are very variable in the current literature. Traditionally, up to eight species are recognised, although more than 30 European species were described. Our preliminary phylogenetic study suggest existence of more than 25 molecular operation units in Europe that probably represent independent species. Aim of the project is to define European and North American Dermoloma species by means of molecular and morphological methods and to assign them correct names. Fungi of the genus Dermoloma are essential part of grassland ecosystems and accordingly this project will deal with studies of environmental soil samples. We will look for suitable metabarcode for identification of species using next generation sequencing (metagenomics).
Duration: 1.1.2018 – 31.12.2021
Štúdium funkcie génov dehydrínov z Arabidopsis thaliana pri tolerancii voči vybraným typom abiotického stresu
Studying of the function of dehydrin genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in the tolerance to selected types of abiotic stresses
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: doc. Ing. Moravčíková Jana PhD.
Annotation: Due to the changes in the environment, plants are increasingly exposed to different types of abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, low temperature or the presence of heavy metals. A part of plant response is a modulation of the cellular metabolism and production of a wide range of proteins including dehydrins. Dehydrins are hydrophilic proteins that are induced mainly under of low temperature or dehydration. The mechanism of their action has not been clarified yet. The work is aimed to study the effect of constitutive expression of Arabidopsis dehydrin genesAt1g54410, At2g21490 and At3g50970 on the tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants against selected types of abiotic stresses, and their combinations. Their structures contain histidine-rich regions that have potential to bind free metals; therefore, it could contribute to increased tolerance to heavy metals. At the same time we will study the extent to which the overexpression of dehydrin genes interact with other components of plant defense.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2019
PLADEFNUT – Štúdium vplyvu rôznych nutričných podmienok na akumuláciu toxických elementov v pšenici
Studying the effect of different nutritional conditions on the accumulation of toxic elements in wheat
Program: APVV
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: doc. Ing. Moravčíková Jana PhD.
Annotation: The project addresses the impact of two important environmental contaminants on plants at present,namely the presence of toxic metals, excessive amounts / concentrations of nitrogen and their combinations.Both factors are the result of the development of industry, agriculture and chemical production that areassociated with a large number of pollutants, primarily sulfur oxides, nitrogen, carbon emissions and heavymetals. Knowledge about plant defense mechanisms against these factors is limited. Especially the effects ofexcessive fertilization on accumulation of metals as well as on the plants themselves are at deeper levels littlestudied. The project will address this issue comprehensively through the study of antioxidant enzymes andquantitative/qualitative changes in profiles of typical plant defense proteins. In parallel line of project we willcharacterize a set of varieties of wheat grown in Slovakia for genetic potential to accumulate cadmium usingavailable molecular markers. The project will generate new knowledge about the molecular background of plantresponses to relatively little studied types of stress. These will be evaluated for potential use as markers fortolerance /sensitivity to metal toxicity or excessive application of fertilizers. Knowledge on the effect of increasingconcentrations of nitrogen to plants and their defense capacity will be useful for the management of fertilizerapplication in agriculture. The project will also contribute to the characterization of wheat germplasm fromSlovakia in terms of potential health risk when grown on contaminated territories.
Duration: 1.7.2016 – 30.6.2020
Štúdium vplyvu sekretómu na zvýšenie embryogénnej kapacity pri vybraných druhoch ihličnanov
The study of secretome influence to increasing embryogenic capacity of selected Conifer species
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Mgr. Klubicová Katarína PhD.
Annotation: Somatic embryogenesis represents an efficient plant regeneration system for theoretical studies as well as for mass propagation, especially in conifers. Although the process has been initiated for many conifer species, maturation of somatic embryos and somatic seedling regeneration needs deeper understanding. Advances in understanding of maturation and complete plant regeneration are necessary to use the regeneration system for conifer micropropagation. The aim of the submitted proposal is isolation and identification of a secretome of embryogenic cell lines with different embryogenic capacity using proteomic methods and to find potential markers or proteins active in regulation or signal transduction in selected conifer species and contribute to better understanding of process of somatic embryogenesis in woody plants.
Duration: 1.1.2018 – 31.12.2020
Štúdium vybraných fyziologických a molekulárnych parametrov zahrnutých v regenerácii a raste parazitických burín Phelipanche spp.
Study of selected physiological and molecular factors involved in regeneration and growth of parasitic weeds of Phelipanche spp.
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Matúšová Radoslava PhD.
Annotation: Parasitic plants of Phelipanche, Orobanche and Striga spp. belong to economically important plant pathogens with negative impact on agriculture. They are causing an annual loss of more then 7 billion US$. After germination these parasitic plants attach to the root system of host plants and acquire water and all nutrients from the host. There is no effective method to eliminate these weeds at present. Therefore the scientists focus their research on identification of genes and mechanisms involved in interactions between parasitic plants and their hosts. The main goal of this project is study of factors influencing growth and regeneration of Phelipanche spp. under in vitro conditions. This knowledge together with developed protocols for Phelipanche genetic transformation will allow to study functions of genes involved in parasite-host interactions and help in development of novel methods for the selective control of root parasitic weeds.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2020
Taxonomická a nomenklatorická revízia diverzity cievnatých rastlín Slovenska
Taxonomic and nomenclatural revision of diversity of vascular plants of Slovakia
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Letz Dominik Roman PhD.
Annotation: The main aim of the project is to carry out thorough taxonomic, nomenclatural and chorological revision of diversity of vascular plants of Slovakia. New checklist of taxa will be published as an important reference source not only for botanists and other fields of science dealing with vascular plants, but also for legal issues, nature conservation, agriculture and forestry. The revision will critically respect all the actual data on the flora of Slovakia as well as latest discoveries in plant phylogeny and taxonomy. The checklist will be compatible with the current Euro-Mediterranean checklist (Euro+Med PlantBase) and other international standards. Within the project, numerous nomenclature issues will be dealt with that will result also in papers published in international journals. Web portal created for the new checklist will be a single access point not only for the information on accepted plant names and synonyms, but also for the vernacular names, and other data.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2020
Transkripčná, posttranskripčná a posttranslačná regulácia génu IRT1, rozhodujúceho transportéra železa v koreni rastlín
Transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation of IRT1 gene, a key transporter of iron in plant roots
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Doc. RNDr. Jásik Ján CSc.
Annotation: Using transgenic and mutant lines in combination with the current genetic, molecular biological, histochemical, immunological, fluorometric, chemical analytical and microscopic methods we want to explore whether and how the presence or absence of iron and other metal elements transferred by IRT1 protein may affect the activity of IRT1 promoter, the process of RNA splicing, localization, turnover and intracellular dynamics of IRT1 protein varieties in roots of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Examination of multi-level regulation of the IRT1 gene and simultaneous monitoring of the contents and the distribution of iron and other metallic components in the plants will yield valuable information for applications in biotechnology in order to enrich the plants with iron and / or to limit the absorption of potentially toxic metal elements. The findings may be useful in the agricultural breeding practice to obtain higher yielding varieties and tolerant plants to environmental stress caused by heavy metals.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2020
Vplyv interakcií voľnej žijúcich bylinožravcov a vegetácie na procesy vo vysokohorských ekosystémoch
The Effects of Interactions Between Wild Herbivores and Vegetation on Processes in Alpine Ecosystems
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Šibík Jozef PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 – 31.12.2019
Vplyv krajiny a regulácií na spoločenstvá bentosu tečúcich vôd.
Impact of regulations of the country and the communities benthos flowing water
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Illýová Marta PhD.
Annotation: The aim of the project is to find out the development of influence of environmental factors in undisturbed and degradate streams of river landscape. Undisturbed mountain and submountain streams, as well as the streams affected by the wind calamity and deforestation have been selected as model research objects. The research will be aimed at the determination of microhabitat preferences of selected taxa, as well as the evaluation of long term development of big Slovak rivers. The assessment of the impact of regulations on these rivers will be done,too. We want to investigate the impact of hydroclimate on the temperature regime of stream and the temperature preference of water organisms. We will focus on hierarchically different spectrum of aquatic organism, and the chosen isotopes of chemical elements in hydrobionts and their prey, in different geological and ecological environment, ecological metrics, indexes of river floodplain streams, species characteristics and phylogenetic relatioships of macrozoobenthos.
Duration: 1.1.2016 – 31.12.2019
Vplyv kremíka a kyseliny salicylovej na fyziologické a biochemické procesy rastlín kukurice vystavených stresu z antimónu (Sb) a niklu (Ni)
Effect of silicon and salicylic acid on physiological and metabolical processes in maize plants stressed by antimony (Sb) and nickel (Ni)
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Luxová Miroslava CSc.
Annotation: The increased attention to the environmental contamination by heavy metals is paid over the last few decades. One of the potential environmental contaminants is antimony. Sb in large amounts enters the environment by anthropogenic activity. Nickel is considered as essential element that is toxic to most plants at higher concentrations. Ni is accumulated in soils mainly due to sewage sludge deposition, application of industrial compost or atmospheric fallout, near processing factories. In this project we will study the responses of maize plants stressed by Sb and Ni at the level of biomass production and at the biochemical (formation of ROS, activity of antioxidative enzymes) and physiological (membrane damage, changes in content and expression of proteins) level. We will determine whether the individual application of silicon or salicylic acid or their combination can protect maize plants from Sb or Ni toxicity by fine-tuning the antioxidative system of plants and/or improving plant growth and development.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2020
Využitie kremíka pri potlačení invázie fytopatogénnych húb do koreňov rastlín
Silicon-mediated inhibition of fungal phytopathogen invasion into the plant roots
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Luxová Miroslava CSc.
Annotation: Sorghum bicolor is the fifth most cultivated cereal world-wide with food and technical usage. The quantity and quality of produced biomass are affected by fungal disease. The goal of this project is to find out if the silicon application can enhance the root defence against phytopathogenic fungus either by specific deposition of silicate aggregates or by metabolic changes in the plant roots. The invasive properties of fungus, the production of host biomass, of reactive oxygen species, of antioxidative enzymes, and their activities, the silicon content and localisation in the host, and quantification of potentialy mitigating effects of silicon will be done after selection of suitable genotypes of host and pathogen. The expected benefit of silicon to decrease the negative effects resulting from the phytopathogen – host interaction could be applicable in agricultural praxis to protect the sorghum against the attack of phytopathogen by application of silicon.
Duration: 1.1.2016 – 31.12.2019
MASnPNO – Využitie myrozinázy na aktiváciu sulforafanu pre vývoj preparátu s preventívnymi účinkami nádorových ochorení
The application of myrosinase for sulforaphane activation in development of a novel product exhibiting cancer prevention effects
Program: APVV
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: doc. RNDr. Salaj Ján DrSc.
Annotation: Effects of sulphoraphane on cencer prevention was already proven. Sulforaphane is often presents in food at the non-effective level for fulfillment the prevention effects. In addition, the natural glucosinolate form of sulforaphane, glucorafanine, is much less effective, therefore its activation to sulforaphane is needed. This conversion is catalysed by enzyme, myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147). Aim of the current project is to design the new product based on sulforaphane-glucosinolate and stabilized myrosinase as combine product.
Duration: 1.7.2017 – 30.6.2021
Zmeny biodiverzity v urbánne fragmentovanej krajine
Changes in biodiversity in an urban fragmented landscape
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: Ing. Čejka Tomáš PhD.
Annotation: The project deals with changes in biodiversity in an urban environment in two ways: in the space (ecological gradients, fragmentation of habitats) and time (historical data). For study, we chose two ecologically linked model groups: vascular plants and land snails. Based on the research of these model organisms, we will solve five main points: [1] How the urban fragmented woodland fits principles of the island biogeography and what is the impact of the fragmentation and env. variables on the biota structure and variability. [2] Whether and to what extent the genetic diversity of the populations of selected model species varies in long-term continuously forested areas comparing the neorefugia; [3] How the urban environment impacts in time and space on the diversity of indigenous species; [4] On the basis of the theory of refugia verify what is the ecol.l traits structure of biota in the remains of forest vegetation; [5] Whether biotic homogenization occurs and which groups of biota are most affected by biotic homogenisation.
Duration: 1.1.2018 – 31.12.2021
Život na hranici zániku – možnosti zachovania halofytov vo flóre Slovenska
Life on the border of extinction – surviving potential of halophytes in Slovakia
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Dítě Daniel PhD.
Duration: 1.1.2016 – 31.12.2019