||Most members of the order Leotiales are quite rare and are endangered almost in all countries of their occurrence. The order includes two families, Geoglossaceae (8 genera) and Leotiaceae (3 genera). They occur in some forest areas but predominantly they are associated with specific non-forest habitats, such as peat bogs, meadows, pastures and also sand dunes. Recently numerous new taxa are being described but no determination manual for their identification is available. Latest estimate includes about 25 taxa of the order in the Carpathians but delimitation of most of them is vague. We have identified serious taxonomical problems in genera Geoglossum, Microglossum and Thuemenidium that have to be solved. Taxonomical data will support consequent phylogenetic analyses and discussion on paraphyletic origin of genera. Field collections from the Carpathians, type and other material held in fungaria also published records will allow us to summarize ecology, construct distribution maps and propose threat status.