SiliToxi – Potenciál kremíka na zmiernenie toxicity arzénu a antimónu pri kultúrnych rastlinách
Potential of silicon for mitigation of arsenic and antimony toxicity in agricultural crops
Program: APVV
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Vaculík Marek PhD.
Annotation: Contamination by arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is not only a serious environmental problem in highly-industrialized countries of the world, however also in Slovakia, mainly due to mining and power industry. The sites contaminated by these elements can be found across the whole Slovakia, from Malé Karpaty Mountains, Horná Nitra region, Liptov region to surrounding of Košice city in east Slovakia. As and Sb belong to toxic and dangerous elements for all living organisms. Despite an intensive research in the last years there is still only limited knowledge about the effect and phytotoxicity of As and Sb, and especially on interaction of toxic (As, Sb) and beneficial (Si) metalloids in plants what is the research aspect of this project. Therefore, the main aim of this project is to obtain a complex characterization of beneficial effects of Si on toxicity of individual elements and their combination on molecular-biological, biochemical, anatomical-morphological and physiological level. As a model object, important agricultural crops will be investigated.
Duration: 1.8.2018 – 30.6.2022
Vplyv kremíka a kyseliny salicylovej na fyziologické a biochemické procesy rastlín kukurice vystavených stresu z antimónu (Sb) a niklu (Ni)
Effect of silicon and salicylic acid on physiological and metabolical processes in maize plants stressed by antimony (Sb) and nickel (Ni)
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Luxová Miroslava CSc.
Annotation: The increased attention to the environmental contamination by heavy metals is paid over the last few decades. One of the potential environmental contaminants is antimony. Sb in large amounts enters the environment by anthropogenic activity. Nickel is considered as essential element that is toxic to most plants at higher concentrations. Ni is accumulated in soils mainly due to sewage sludge deposition, application of industrial compost or atmospheric fallout, near processing factories. In this project we will study the responses of maize plants stressed by Sb and Ni at the level of biomass production and at the biochemical (formation of ROS, activity of antioxidative enzymes) and physiological (membrane damage, changes in content and expression of proteins) level. We will determine whether the individual application of silicon or salicylic acid or their combination can protect maize plants from Sb or Ni toxicity by fine-tuning the antioxidative system of plants and/or improving plant growth and development.
Duration: 1.1.2017 – 31.12.2020
Využitie kremíka pri potlačení invázie fytopatogénnych húb do koreňov rastlín
Silicon-mediated inhibition of fungal phytopathogen invasion into the plant roots
Program: VEGA
Zodpovedný riešiteľ: RNDr. Luxová Miroslava CSc.
Annotation: Sorghum bicolor is the fifth most cultivated cereal world-wide with food and technical usage. The quantity and quality of produced biomass are affected by fungal disease. The goal of this project is to find out if the silicon application can enhance the root defence against phytopathogenic fungus either by specific deposition of silicate aggregates or by metabolic changes in the plant roots. The invasive properties of fungus, the production of host biomass, of reactive oxygen species, of antioxidative enzymes, and their activities, the silicon content and localisation in the host, and quantification of potentialy mitigating effects of silicon will be done after selection of suitable genotypes of host and pathogen. The expected benefit of silicon to decrease the negative effects resulting from the phytopathogen – host interaction could be applicable in agricultural praxis to protect the sorghum against the attack of phytopathogen by application of silicon.
Duration: 1.1.2016 – 31.12.2019