DIVISION II. RULES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
CHAPTER II. STATUS, TYPIFICATION,
AND PRIORITY OF NAMES
SECTION 4. LIMITATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF
15.1. Names sanctioned under Art. 13.1(d)
are treated as if conserved against earlier homonyms and competing
synonyms. Such names, once sanctioned, remain sanctioned even if
elsewhere in the sanctioning works the sanctioning author does not
Fr. was accepted by Fries in Systema mycologicum
(1821), but later (1828) regarded by him as a synonym of
L. and not included in his Index
(1832) as an accepted name. Nevertheless
is a sanctioned name.
15.2. An earlier homonym of a sanctioned name is not made
illegitimate by that sanctioning but is unavailable for use; if not
otherwise illegitimate, it may serve as a basionym of another name or
combination based on the same type (see also Art. 55.3).
Ex. 2. Patellaria
Hoffm. (1789) is an earlier homonym of the sanctioned generic name
Fr. (1822) : Fr. Hoffmann's name is legitimate but unavailable for use.
Endl. (1830), based on the same type as Patellaria
Fr. : Fr., is illegitimate under
Ex. 3. Agaricus cervinus
Schaeff. (1774) is an earlier homonym of the sanctioned
Hoffm. (1789) : Fr.; Schaeffer's name is
unavailable for use, but it is legitimate and may serve as basionym for
combinations in other genera. In
Fr. the combination is cited as P. cervinus
(Schaeff.) P. Kumm. and has priority over the taxonomic (heterotypic) synonym
(Batsch) Fayod, based on A. atricapillus
15.3. When, for a taxon from family to and including genus, two or more sanctioned names compete,
Art. 11.3 governs the choice of the correct name (see also
15.4. When, for a taxon below the rank of genus, two or more
sanctioned names and/or two or more names with the same final epithet
and type as a sanctioned name compete, Art. 11.4 governs the choice of the correct name.
The date of sanctioning does not affect the priority (Art.
of a sanctioned name, which is determined only on the basis of valid
publication. In particular, when two or more homonyms are sanctioned
only the earliest of them may be used, the later being illegitimate
under Art. 53.2
Fries (Syst. Mycol. 1: 41. 1821) accepted Agaricus flavovirens
Pers. (1793), treating
L. (1753) as a synonym. Later (Elench. Fung. 1: 6. 1828) he stated "Nomen prius et aptius arte restituendum" and accepted
. Both names are sanctioned, but when they are considered synonyms
, having priority, is to be used.
15.5. A name which neither is sanctioned nor has the same
type and final epithet as a sanctioned name in the same rank may not be
applied to a taxon which includes the type of a sanctioned name in that
rank the final epithet of which is available for the required
combination (see Art. 11.4(b)).
15.6. Conservation (Art. 14) and explicit rejection
(Art. 56.1) override
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