DIVISION II. RULES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
CHAPTER IV. EFFECTIVE AND VALID PUBLICATION
SECTION 1. CONDITIONS AND DATES OF
30.1. Publication by indelible autograph before 1 January 1953
is effective. Indelible autograph produced at a later date is not
Ex. 1. Salvia oxyodon
Webb & Heldr. was effectively published in an indelible autograph catalogue placed on sale (Webb & Heldreich,
Catalogus plantarum hispanicarum ... ab A
. Blanco lectarum,
Paris, Jul 1850, folio).
Ex. 2. The Journal of the International Conifer Preservation Society,
vol. 5. 1997 ("1998"), consists of duplicated sheets of typewritten
text with handwritten additions and corrections in several places. The
handwritten portions, being indelible autograph published after 1
January 1953, are not effectively published. Intended new combinations
("Abies koreana var. yuanbaoshanensis", p. 53) for
which the basionym reference is handwritten are not validly published.
The entirely handwritten account of a new taxon (p. 61: name, Latin
description, statement of type) is treated as unpublished (see also Rec. 34A.1).
30.2. For the purpose of this
Article, indelible autograph is handwritten material reproduced by some
mechanical or graphic process (such as lithography, offset, or metallic
Léveillé, Flore du Kouy Tchéou
(1914-1915), is a work lithographed from a handwritten text.
30.3. Publication on or after 1
January 1953 in trade catalogues or non-scientific newspapers, and on
or after 1 January 1973 in seed-exchange lists, does not constitute
30.4. The distribution on or after
1 January 1953 of printed matter accompanying exsiccatae does not
constitute effective publication.
If the printed matter is also distributed independently of the exsiccata, it is effectively published.
The printed labels of Fuckel's Fungi rhenani exsiccati
(1863-1874) are effectively published even though not independently
issued. The labels antedate Fuckel's subsequent accounts (e.g. in
Jahrb. Nassauischen Vereins Naturk. 23-24. 1870).
Vězda's Lichenes selecti exsiccati
(1967-) were issued with printed labels that were also distributed
independently as printed fascicles; the latter are effectively
published and new names appearing in Vězda's exsiccata are to be cited
from the fascicles.
30.5. Publication on or after 1 January 1953 of an
independent non-serial work stated to be a thesis submitted to a university or other institute
of education for the purpose of obtaining a degree is not effectively published unless it
includes an explicit statement (referring to the requirements of the Code for effective
publication) or other internal evidence that it is regarded as an effective publication by its
author or publisher.
The presence of an International Standard Book
Number (ISBN) or a statement of the name of the printer, publisher, or distributor in the
original printed version is regarded as internal evidence that the work was intended to be
; yellow flowering
species - Systematic studies in Clematis
inclusive of cultonomic aspects" a "Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor ... van
Wageningen Universiteit" by Brandenburg, was effectively published on 8 June 2000, because it
bore the ISBN 90-5808-237-7.
The thesis "Comparative investigations on the life-histories
and reproduction of some species in the siphoneous green algal genera Bryopsis
by Rietema, submitted to Rijksuniversiteit te Groningen in 1975, is stated to have been printed
("Druk") by Verenigde Reproduktie Bedrijven, Groningen and is therefore effectively published.
The dissertation "Die Gattung Mycena
Rexer, submitted to the Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, was effectively published in 1994
because it bore the statement "Druck: Zeeb-Druck, Tübingen 7 (Hagelloch)", referring to a
commercial printer. The generic name Roridomyces
Rexer, typified by Agaricus roridus
Scop., and combinations in Mycena
are therefore validly published. The generic name Roridella
E. Horak (Röhrlinge und Blätterpilze in Europa: 509. 2005), also published with A. roridus
Scop. as type,
is illegitimate (Art. 52.1
The thesis by Demoulin, "Le genre Lycoperdon
en Europe et en Amérique du Nord", defended in 1971, does not contain internal evidence that it
is regarded as effectively published. Even if photocopies of it can be found in some libraries,
new species of Lycoperdon
, e.g. "L. americanum", "L. cokeri"
, and "L. estonicum"
introduced there, were validly published in the effectively published "Espèces nouvelles ou méconnues
du genre Lycoperdon
(Gastéromycetes)" (Demoulin in Lejeunia, n.s., 62: 1-28. 1972).
The dissertation "Nasa
and the conquest of
South America - Systematic Rearrangements in Loasaceae
Juss." submitted in June 1997 to
the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München by Weigend is not effectively published as it does
not include an ISBN, the name of any printer or publisher or distributor, or any statement that
it was intended to be effectively published under the Code
, even though 40 copies were
distributed, all the other formalities for the publication of new taxa were met, and statements
were made implying effective publication but not mentioning the Code
, such as that although
"the majority of names will be published elsewhere … for some ... groups new names are here
provided". The names intended to be published in the thesis were validly published in Taxon 55:
Ex. 11. Montanoa imbricata
V. A. Funk was validly
published in "The systematics of Montanoa
)" (Funk in Mem.
New York Bot. Gard. 36: 116. 1982), not in Funk's dissertation "The Systematics of Montanoa
)" submitted to the Ohio State University in 1980, nor in facsimile copies of
the dissertation printed from microfiche and distributed, on demand, by University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, beginning in 1980.
30A.1. It is strongly recommended
that authors avoid publishing new names and descriptions or diagnoses
of new taxa (nomenclatural novelties) in ephemeral printed matter of any kind, in particular
printed matter that is multiplied in restricted and uncertain numbers,
in which the permanence of the text may be limited, for which effective
publication in terms of number of copies is not obvious, or that is
unlikely to reach the general public. Authors should also avoid
publishing new names and descriptions or diagnoses in popular
periodicals, in abstracting journals, or on correction slips.
Kartesz provided an
unpaged, printed insert titled "Nomenclatural innovations" to accompany
the electronic version (1.0) of the
Synthesis of the North American flora
produced on compact disk (CD-ROM; distribution through an electronic medium in terms of
). This insert, which is effectively published under
is the place of valid publication of 41 new combinations, which also
appear on the disk, in an item authored by Kartesz: "A synonymized
checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora
of the United States, Canada, and Greenland" (e.g.
(Swallen) Kartesz in Kartesz &
Meacham, Synth. N. Amer. Fl., Nomencl. Innov.: . Aug 1999).
Kartesz's procedure is not to be recommended, as the insert is unlikely
to be permanently stored and catalogued in botanical libraries and so
reach the general public.
30A.2. To aid availability through time and place, authors publishing
nomenclatural novelties should give preference to periodicals that
regularly publish taxonomic articles, or else printed copies of a publication (even if also distributed electronically) should be deposited in at least ten, but preferably more, botanical or other generally accessible libraries throughout the world including a name-indexing centre appropriate to the taxonomic group.
30A.3. Authors and editors are
encouraged to mention nomenclatural novelties in the summary or
abstract, or list them in an index in the
2006, by International Association for Plant Taxonomy. This page last updated