<html><head> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN"> <html> <head><title>INTERNATIONAL CODE OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE online</title> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="styly.css"> </head> <body> <a name="top"></a> <div align="right"><a href="0033Ch4Sec1a029.htm" alt="back"><img src="back1.gif" border="none" width="20" height="19"></a> <a href="0035Ch4Sec1a031.htm" alt="forward"><img src="next1.gif" border="none" width="20" height="19"></a></div> <h1>DIVISION II. &nbsp;RULES AND RECOMMENDATIONS<BR /> CHAPTER IV. EFFECTIVE AND VALID PUBLICATION<br /> SECTION 1. CONDITIONS AND DATES OF EFFECTIVE PUBLICATION</h1> <h2>Article 30</h2> <p><span class=white>30.1.</span> Publication by indelible autograph before 1 January 1953 is effective. Indelible autograph produced at a later date is not effectively published.</p> <div class=ex><span class=white><a name="ex1">Ex. 1.</a></span> <i> Salvia oxyodon</i> Webb &amp; Heldr. was effectively published in an indelible autograph catalogue placed on sale (Webb &amp; Heldreich, <i> Catalogus plantarum hispanicarum ... ab A</i>. <i> Blanco lectarum,</i> Paris, Jul 1850, folio). <p><span class=white><a name="ex2">Ex. 2.</a></span> The <i> Journal of the International Conifer Preservation Society,</i> vol. 5[1]. 1997 ("1998"), consists of duplicated sheets of typewritten text with handwritten additions and corrections in several places. The handwritten portions, being indelible autograph published after 1 January 1953, are not effectively published. Intended new combinations (<i>"Abies koreana</i> var. <i> yuanbaoshanensis",</i> p. 53) for which the basionym reference is handwritten are not validly published. The entirely handwritten account of a new taxon (p. 61: name, Latin description, statement of type) is treated as unpublished (see also <a href="0038Ch4Sec2a034.htm#recA">Rec. 34A.1</a>). </div> <p><span class=white><a name="30.2.">30.2.</a></span> For the purpose of this Article, indelible autograph is handwritten material reproduced by some mechanical or graphic process (such as lithography, offset, or metallic etching). </p> <div class=ex><span class=white><a name="ex3">Ex. 3.</a></span> Lveill, <i> Flore du Kouy Tchou</i> (1914-1915), is a work lithographed from a handwritten text. </div> <p><span class=white><a name="30.3.">30.3.</a></span> Publication on or after 1 January 1953 in trade catalogues or non-scientific newspapers, and on or after 1 January 1973 in seed-exchange lists, does not constitute effective publication. </p> <p><span class=white><a name="30.4.">30.4.</a></span> The distribution on or after 1 January 1953 of printed matter accompanying exsiccatae does not constitute effective publication. </p> <div class=note><span class=white><a name="note1">Note 1.</a></span> If the printed matter is also distributed independently of the exsiccata, it is effectively published. </div> <div class=ex><span class=white><a name="ex4">Ex. 4.</a></span> The printed labels of Fuckel's <i> Fungi rhenani exsiccati</i> (1863-1874) are effectively published even though not independently issued. The labels antedate Fuckel's subsequent accounts (e.g. in Jahrb. Nassauischen Vereins Naturk. 23-24. 1870). </div> <div class=ex><span class=white><a name="ex5">Ex. 5.</a></span> Vzda's <i> Lichenes selecti exsiccati</i> (1967-) were issued with printed labels that were also distributed independently as printed fascicles; the latter are effectively published and new names appearing in Vzda's exsiccata are to be cited from the fascicles. </div> <p><span class=white><a name="30.5.">30.5.</a></span> Publication on or after 1 January 1953 of an independent non-serial work stated to be a thesis submitted to a university or other institute of education for the purpose of obtaining a degree is not effectively published unless it includes an explicit statement (referring to the requirements of the <i>Code</i> for effective publication) or other internal evidence that it is regarded as an effective publication by its author or publisher.</p> <div class=note><span class=white><a name="note2">Note 2.</a></span> The presence of an International Standard Book Number (ISBN) or a statement of the name of the printer, publisher, or distributor in the original printed version is regarded as internal evidence that the work was intended to be effectively published.</div> <div class=ex><span class=white><a name="ex6">Ex. 6.</a></span> "<i>Meclatis </i>in <i>Clematis</i>; yellow flowering <i>Clematis </i>species - Systematic studies in <i>Clematis </i>L. (<i>Ranunculaceae</i>), inclusive of cultonomic aspects" a "Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor ... van Wageningen Universiteit" by Brandenburg, was effectively published on 8 June 2000, because it bore the ISBN 90-5808-237-7.</div> <div class=ex><span class=white><a name="ex7">Ex. 7.</a></span> The thesis "Comparative investigations on the life-histories and reproduction of some species in the siphoneous green algal genera <i>Bryopsis </i>and <i>Derbesia</i>" by Rietema, submitted to Rijksuniversiteit te Groningen in 1975, is stated to have been printed ("Druk") by Verenigde Reproduktie Bedrijven, Groningen and is therefore effectively published.</div> <div class=ex><span class=white><a name="ex8">Ex. 8.</a></span> The dissertation "Die Gattung <i>Mycena </i>s.l." by Rexer, submitted to the Eberhard-Karls-Universitt Tbingen, was effectively published in 1994 because it bore the statement "Druck: Zeeb-Druck, Tbingen 7 (Hagelloch)", referring to a commercial printer. The generic name <i>Roridomyces </i>Rexer, typified by <i>Agaricus roridus </i> Scop., and combinations in <i>Mycena </i>are therefore validly published. The generic name <i>Roridella </i> E. Horak (Rhrlinge und Bltterpilze in Europa: 509. 2005), also published with <i>A. roridus </i>Scop. as type, is illegitimate (Art. <a href="0057Ch5RejoNa52.htm">52.1</a>).</div> <div class=ex><span class=white><a name="ex9">Ex. 9.</a></span> The thesis by Demoulin, "Le genre <i>Lycoperdon </i> en Europe et en Amrique du Nord", defended in 1971, does not contain internal evidence that it is regarded as effectively published. Even if photocopies of it can be found in some libraries, new species of <i>Lycoperdon</i>, e.g. <i>"L. americanum", "L. cokeri"</i>, and <i>"L. estonicum"</i>, introduced there, were validly published in the effectively published "Espces nouvelles ou mconnues du genre <i>Lycoperdon </i>(Gastromycetes)" (Demoulin in Lejeunia, n.s., 62: 1-28. 1972).</div> <div class=ex><span class=white><a name="ex10">Ex. 10.</a></span> The dissertation "<i>Nasa</i> and the conquest of South America - Systematic Rearrangements in <i>Loasaceae </i>Juss." submitted in June 1997 to the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt Mnchen by Weigend is not effectively published as it does not include an ISBN, the name of any printer or publisher or distributor, or any statement that it was intended to be effectively published under the <i>Code</i>, even though 40 copies were distributed, all the other formalities for the publication of new taxa were met, and statements were made implying effective publication but not mentioning the <i>Code</i>, such as that although "the majority of names will be published elsewhere & for some ... groups new names are here provided". The names intended to be published in the thesis were validly published in Taxon 55: 463-468. 2006.</div> <div class=ex><span class=white><a name="ex11">Ex. 11.</a></span> <i>Montanoa imbricata </i>V. A. Funk was validly published in "The systematics of <i>Montanoa</i> (<i>Asteraceae, Heliantheae</i>)" (Funk in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 36: 116. 1982), not in Funk's dissertation "The Systematics of <i>Montanoa</i> Cerv. (<i>Asteraceae</i>)" submitted to the Ohio State University in 1980, nor in facsimile copies of the dissertation printed from microfiche and distributed, on demand, by University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, beginning in 1980.</div> <h3><a name="recA">Recommendation 30A</a></h3> <p><span class=white>30A.1.</span> It is strongly recommended that authors avoid publishing new names and descriptions or diagnoses of new taxa (nomenclatural novelties) in ephemeral printed matter of any kind, in particular printed matter that is multiplied in restricted and uncertain numbers, in which the permanence of the text may be limited, for which effective publication in terms of number of copies is not obvious, or that is unlikely to reach the general public. Authors should also avoid publishing new names and descriptions or diagnoses in popular periodicals, in abstracting journals, or on correction slips. </p> <div class=ex><span class=white>Ex. 1.</span> Kartesz provided an unpaged, printed insert titled "Nomenclatural innovations" to accompany the electronic version (1.0) of the <i> Synthesis of the North American flora</i> produced on compact disk (CD-ROM; distribution through an electronic medium in terms of <a href="0033Ch4Sec1a029.htm"> Art. 29.1</a>). This insert, which is effectively published under <a href="0033Ch4Sec1a029.htm"> Art. 29</a>-30, is the place of valid publication of 41 new combinations, which also appear on the disk, in an item authored by Kartesz: "A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland" (e.g. <i> Dichanthelium hirstii</i> (Swallen) Kartesz in Kartesz &amp; Meacham, Synth. N. Amer. Fl., Nomencl. Innov.: [1]. Aug 1999). Kartesz's procedure is not to be recommended, as the insert is unlikely to be permanently stored and catalogued in botanical libraries and so reach the general public. </div> <p><span class=white>30A.2.</span> To aid availability through time and place, authors publishing nomenclatural novelties should give preference to periodicals that regularly publish taxonomic articles, or else printed copies of a publication (even if also distributed electronically) should be deposited in at least ten, but preferably more, botanical or other generally accessible libraries throughout the world including a name-indexing centre appropriate to the taxonomic group. </p> <p><span class=white>30A.3.</span> Authors and editors are encouraged to mention nomenclatural novelties in the summary or abstract, or list them in an index in the publication. </p> <div align="right"><a href="0033Ch4Sec1a029.htm" alt="back"><img src="back1.gif" border="none" width="20" height="19"></a> &nbsp;<a href="#top" alt="top"><img src="up1.gif" border="none" width="19" height="20"></a> <a href="0035Ch4Sec1a031.htm" alt="forward"><img src="next1.gif" border="none" width="20" height="19"></a></div> <hr size="1" color="#336699"> <p style="line-height: 100%" align="center"><font size="1">(c) 2006, by International Association for Plant Taxonomy. This page last updated&nbsp; <!--webbot bot="Timestamp" S-Type="EDITED" S-Format="%d.%m.%Y" startspan -->13.03.2007<!--webbot bot="Timestamp" endspan i-checksum="12509" --> .</font></p> <p>&nbsp; </p></body></html>