DIVISION II. RULES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
CHAPTER IV. EFFECTIVE AND VALID
SECTION 2. CONDITIONS AND DATES OF
VALID PUBLICATION OF NAMES
34.1. A name is not validly published
(a) when it is not accepted by the author in the original publication; (b)
when it is merely proposed in anticipation of the future acceptance of
the taxon concerned, or of a particular circumscription, position, or
rank of the taxon (so-called provisional name), except as provided for
(c) when it is merely cited as a synonym; (d) by the
mere mention of the subordinate taxa included in the taxon concerned.
Art. 34.1(a) does not apply to names published with a question mark or
other indication of taxonomic doubt, yet accepted by their author.
proposed by Pierre (ms.) for a monotypic genus, was not validly
published by Baillon (in Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 2: 945. 1891)
because he did not accept the genus. Although he gave a description of
it, he referred its only species "Sebertia acuminata
Pierre (ms.)" to the genus
R. Br. as S.
which he thereby validly published under the provision of Art. 34.1, last sentence. The name
was validly published by Engler (1897).
(a) The designations listed in the lefthand column of the Linnaean thesis
defended by Stickman (1754) were not names accepted by Linnaeus upon publication and are not validly published.
(a) Coralloides gorgonina
was validly published in a paper by Flörke (in Mag. Neusten Entdeck. Gesammten Naturk. Ges. Naturf.
Freunde Berlin 3: 125. 1809), even though Flörke did not accept it as a new species. At Bory's request,
Flörke included Bory's diagnosis (and name) making Bory the author of the name under Art. 46.2
The acceptance or otherwise of the name by Flörke is not, therefore, relevant for valid publication.
Ex. 4. (a) (b) The designation
"Conophyton", suggested by Haworth (Rev. Pl. Succ.: 82. 1821) for Mesembryanthemum sect.
Minima Haw. (Rev. Pl. Succ.: 81. 1821) in the words "If this section proves to be a genus, the name of
Conophyton would be apt", was not a validly published generic
name since Haworth did not adopt it or accept the genus. The name was
validly published as
Conophytum N. E. Br. (1922).
were published by Greguss (in Földt. Közl. 82:
171. 1952) for a genus and species of fossil wood. As Greguss
explicitly stated "Vorläufig benenne ich es mit den Namen ..."
[provisionally I designate it by the names ...], these are provisional
names and as such are not validly published.
(b) The designation "Sterocaulon subdenudatum"
proposed by Havaas (in Bergens Mus. Årbok. 12: 13, 20. 1954) is not validly published in spite
of it being presented as a new species with a Latin diagnosis, since on both pages it was
indicated to be "ad int."
(c) "Ornithogalum undulatum
hort. Bouch." was not validly published by Kunth, (Enum. Pl. 4: 348. 1843) when he cited it as a synonym under
Kunth; the combination under Ornithogalum
L. was validly published later:
(Kunth) Asch. (1866).
(d) The family designation
was not validly published by Pierre (in
Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 2: 1296. Mai 1897), who merely mentioned
the constituent genera,
, and Rhaptopetalum
Oliv., but gave no description or diagnosis; the family bears the name
Engl. (Oct 1897), accompanied by a description.
(d) The generic designation
was not validly published by Salisbury (in Trans.
Hort. Soc. London 1: 291. 1812), who merely mentioned four included
species but supplied no generic description or diagnosis.
(final sentence) Aponogetonaceae
(in Bot. Mag.: ad. t. 4894. 1856) was validly published by reference to the description of
"Aponogétacées" (Planchon in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3, 1: 119. 1844) even though Hooker
indicated taxonomic doubt when he wrote (pp. [4-5]) "M. Planchon ... suggests that
should form a suborder of Alismaceae
, or probably a new order,
34.2. When, on or
after 1 January 1953, two or more different names based on the same
type are proposed simultaneously for the same taxon by the same author
(so-called alternative names), none of them is validly published. This
rule does not apply in those cases where the same combination is
simultaneously used at different ranks, either for infraspecific taxa
within a species or for subdivisions of a genus within a genus (see Rec. 22A.1-2 and 26A.1-3).
The species of Brosimum
Sw. described by Ducke (in Arch. Jard. Bot. Rio de Janeiro 3: 23-29. 1922) were published with alternative names under
Aubl. added in a footnote (pp. 23-24). The publication of both sets of names, being effected before 1 January 1953, is valid.
Ex. 12. "Euphorbia jaroslavii"
(Poljakov in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk SSSR 15:
155. 1953) was published with an alternative designation,
. Neither was validly published. However, one name,
(with a different transliteration of the
initial letter), was validly published by Poljakov (1961), who
effectively published it with a reference to the earlier
publication and simultaneously rejected assignment to Tithymalus
Description of "Malvastrum bicuspidatum
S. R. Hill var. tumidum,
subsp. et var. nov." (in Brittonia 32: 474. 1980) simultaneously validated both
S. R. Hill and M. bicuspidatum
S. R. Hill.
Hitchcock (in Univ. Wash. Publ. Biol. 17(1): 507-508. 1969) used the name
(Scribn.) Wagnon and provided a full and direct reference to its basionym,
Scribn. Within that subspecies, he recognized varieties, one of which he named
(without author citation
but clearly based on the same basionym and type). In so doing, he met
the requirements for valid publication of
(Scribn.) C. L. Hitchc.
The name of a fungal holomorph and that of a correlated anamorph (see
even if proposed simultaneously, are not alternative names in the
sense of Art. 34.2, and both are validly published. They have different types, and the circumscription
of the holomorph is considered to include the anamorph, but not vice
Ex. 15. Lasiosphaeria elinorae
Linder (1929), the name of a fungal holomorph, and the simultaneously published name of a correlated anamorph,
Linder, are both validly published, and both can be used under
34A.1. Authors should
avoid mentioning in their publications previously unpublished names
that they do not accept, especially if the persons responsible for
these unpublished names have not formally authorized their publication
(see Rec. 23A.3(i)).
2006, by International Association for Plant Taxonomy. This page last updated