||Biodiversity plays important roles in the capacity of biological and ecological systems to respond to global environmental changes. Projections of climate change demonstrate increased climatic variation of the regions and biomes with long-term stabile climate in the past, such as Mediterranean ecosystems. To understand the impact of climatic changes on biodiversity we need to know it on all the levels. Recent phylogenetic and ecological studies show that Solenopsora lichen species can be used as models to explore diversity and ecological adaptation of symbiotic organisms in the Mediterranean region. In this project we aim to to test the hypothesis that the diversity of fungal and algal communities associated to Solenopsora lichen thalli correlate with the evolutionary history, geographical range and the ecology of two selected species – S. candicans with broader range exceeding Mediterranean region; and S. grisea, restricted to the Mediterranean region.