|INTERNATIONAL CODE OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE online|
The particular usage of a few other words, not defined in the Code, is also indicated; these are italicized in the list below and are accompanied by editorial explanation of their use.
admixture. [Not defined] – something mixed in, especially a minor ingredient, used of components of a gathering that represent a taxon or taxa other than that intended by the collector, and which do not preclude the gathering, or part thereof, being a type specimen, the admixture being disregarded (Art. 8.2).
alternative family names. The eight family names, regularly formed in accordance with Art. 18.1, allowed as alternatives (Art. 18.6) to the family names of long usage treated as validly published under Art. 18.5.
alternative names. Two or more different names proposed simultaneously for the same taxon by the same author (Art. 34.2).
analysis. See illustration with analysis.
anamorph. A mitotic asexual morph in pleomorphic fungi (Art. 59.1).
ascription. The direct association of the name of a person or persons with a new name or description or diagnosis of a taxon (Art. 46.3).
automatic typification. (1) Typification of a nomenclaturally superfluous and illegitimate name by the type of the name which ought to have been adopted under the rules (Art.7.5). (2) Typification of the name of a taxon above the rank of genus by the type of the generic name on which it is based (Art.10.6 and 10.7).
autonym. A generic name or specific epithet repeated without an author citation as the final epithet in the name of a subdivision of a genus or of an infraspecific taxon that includes the type of the adopted, legitimate name of the genus or species, respectively (Art. 22.1 and 26.1).
available. [Not defined] – applied to an epithet in a legitimate (Art. 11.5 and 15.5) or illegitimate (Art. 58.1) name, the type of which falls within the circumscription of the taxon under consideration and where the use of the epithet would not be contrary to the rules (see also available name)].
available name. A name published under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature with a status equivalent to that of a validly published name under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Art. 45.4 footnote).
avowed substitute (replacement name, nomen novum). A name proposed as a substitute for a previously published name (Art. 7.3 and 33.4).
basionym. A previously published legitimate name-bringing or epithet-bringing synonym from which a new name is formed for a taxon of different rank or position (Art. 33.4, 49.1 and 52.3).
binary combination. A generic name combined with a specific epithet to form a specific name (Art. 23.1).
binary designation. [Not defined] – an apparent binary combination that has not been validly published (Art. 46 Note 2; see also Art. 6.3).
combinatio nova (comb. nov.). See new combination.
combination. A name of a taxon below the rank of genus, consisting of the name of a genus combined with one or two epithets (Art. 6.7).
compound. A name or epithet which combines elements derived from two or more Greek or Latin words, a regular compound being one in which a noun or adjective in a non-final position appears as a modified stem (Rec. 60G.1) (see also pseudocompound).
confusingly similar names. Orthographically similar names of genera or epithets of names of subdivisions of genera, of species, or of infraspecific taxa likely to be confused (Art. 53.3 and 53.4).
conserved name (nomen conservandum). (1) A name of a family, genus, or species ruled as legitimate and with precedence over other specified names even though it may have been illegitimate when published or lack priority (Art. 14.1–14.7). (2) A name for which its type, orthography, or gender has been fixed by the conservation process (Art. 14.1, 14.9–14.11).
correct name. The name of a taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank that must be adopted in accordance with the rules (Art. 6.6, 11.1, 11.3, and 11.4).
cultivar. A special category of plants used in agriculture, forestry, and horticulture defined and regulated in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (Art. 28 Notes 2, 4, and 5).
date of name. The date of valid publication of a name (Art. 45.1).
descriptio generico-specifica. A single description simultaneously validating the names of a genus and its single species (Art. 42.1).
description. [Not defined] – a written statement of a feature or features of a taxon required for valid publication of its name (cf. Art. 32.1 (d) and 32.3).
descriptive name. A name of a taxon above the rank of family not based on a generic name (Art. 16.1).
designation. [Not defined] – the term used for what appears to be a name but that has not been validly published (Art. 23.6, 46 Note 2; see also Art. 6.3).
diagnosis. A statement of that which in the opinion of its author distinguishes the taxon from other taxa (Art. 32.2).
duplicate. Part of a single gathering of a single species or infraspecific taxon made by the same collector(s) at one time ( Art. 8.3 footnote).
effective publication. Publication in accordance with Art. 29, 30, 31 (Art. 6.1).
epithet. The final word in a binary combination and the word following the connecting term denoting rank in other combinations (Art. 6.7, 11.4, 21.1, 23.1, and 24.1).
epitype. A specimen or illustration selected to serve as an interpretative type when the holotype, lectotype, or previously designated neotype, or all original material associated with a validly published name cannot be identified for the purpose of precise application of the name of a taxon (Art.9.7).
exsiccata. [Not defined] – Latin adjective used as noun, nominative plural “exsiccatae”, refers to a set of dried specimens, usually numbered and with printed labels, distributed by sale, gift, or exchange (cf. Art. 30.4 and 30 Note 1)].
ex-type (ex typo) [also ex-holotype (ex holotypo), ex-isotype (ex isotypo)]. A living isolate obtained from the type of a name when this is a culture permanently preserved in a metabolically inactive state (Rec. 8B.2).
final epithet. The last epithet in sequence in any particular combination, whether in the rank of a subdivision of a genus, or of a species, or of an infraspecific taxon (Art. 11.4, footnote).
forma specialis. See special form.
form-taxon. In pleomorphic fungi, a taxon typified by an anamorph (Art. 59.3).
fossil taxon. A taxon the name of which is based on a fossil type ( Pre. 7 footnote and Art. 13.3).
gathering. [Not defined] – something brought together, used for a collection of one or more specimens made at the same place and time (Art. 8.2).
heterotypic synonym (taxonomic synonym). A synonym based on a type different from that of the accepted name (Art. 14.4); termed a “subjective synonym” in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the Bacteriological Code ( Art. 14.4 footnote).
holomorph. A pleomorphic fungal species in all its morphs (Art. 59.1).
holotype. The one specimen or illustration used by the author or designated by the author as the nomenclatural type (Art. 9.1).
homonym. A name spelled exactly like another name published for a taxon of the same rank based on a different type (Art. 53.1). Note. Names of subdivisions of genera or infraspecific taxa with the same epithet even if of different rank are treated as homonyms disregarding the connecting term (Art. 53.4).
homotypic synonym (nomenclatural synonym). A synonym based on the same type as that of another name in the same rank (Art. 14.4); termed an “objective synonym” in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the Bacteriological Code (Art. 14.4 footnote).
hybrid formula. An expression consisting of the names of the parent taxa of a hybrid with a multiplication sign placed between them (Art. H.2.1).
illegitimate name. A validly published name that is not in accordance with one or more rules (Art. 6.4), principally those on superfluity (Art. 52) and homonymy (Art. 53 and 54).
illustration with analysis. An illustration with a figure or group of figures, in vascular plants commonly separate from the main illustration, showing details aiding identification (Art. 42.4).
improper Latin termination. A termination of a name or epithet not agreeing with the termination mandated by the Code (Art. 16.3, 18.4, 19.6, and 32.7).
indelible autograph. Handwritten material reproduced by some mechanical or graphic process (such as lithography, offset, or metallic etching) (Art. 30.2).
indirect reference. A clear (if cryptic) indication, by an author citation or in some other way, that a previously and effectively published description or diagnosis applies (Art. 32.6).
informal usage. Usage of rank-denoting terms at more than one non-successive position in the taxonomic sequence. Note: names involved in such usage are validly published but unranked (Art. 33.11).
isonym. The same name based on the same type, published independently at different times by different authors. Note: only the earliest isonym has nomenclatural status (Art. 6 Note 2).
isosyntype. A duplicate of a syntype (Art. 9.10).
isotype. A duplicate specimen of the holotype (Art. 9.3).
later homonym. A homonym published later than another (Art. 53.1).
lectotype. A specimen or illustration designated from the original material as the nomenclatural type if no holotype was indicated at the time of publication, or if it is missing, or if it is found to belong to more than one taxon (Art. 9.2).
legitimate name. A validly published name that is in accordance with all rules (Art. 6.5).
misplaced term. A rank-denoting term used contrary to the relative order specified in the Code (Art. 18.2, 19.2, 33.9, and 33 Note 3).
monotypic genus. A genus for which a single binomial is validly published (Art. 42.2).
morphotaxon. A fossil taxon which, for nomenclatural purposes, comprises only one part, life-history stage, or preservational state represented by the corresponding nomenclatural type (Art. 1.2).
name. A name that has been validly published, whether it is legitimate or illegitimate (Art. 6.3).
neotype. A specimen or illustration selected to serve as nomenclatural type if no original material is extant or as long as it is missing (Art. 9.6).
new combination. A combination formed from a previously published legitimate name and employing the same final epithet (or employing the name itself if formed from a generic name) (Art. 7.4).
new name. A newly published name. Note: this name may be the name of a new taxon, a new combination, a name at a new rank (status novus), or an avowed substitute (nomen novum) for an existing name (Art. 7.3, 7.4, 9 Note 1, Rec. 45A.1).
nomen conservandum (nom. cons.). See conserved name.
nomen novum (nom. nov.). See avowed substitute.
nomen nudum (nom. nud.). A name of a new taxon published without a description or diagnosis or reference to a description or diagnosis (Rec. 50B.1).
nomen rejiciendum (nom. rej.). A name rejected in favour of a name conserved under Art. 14 or a name ruled as rejected under Art. 56 (see also “rejected name”) (App. II, III, IV, and V).
nomen utique rejiciendum. A name ruled as rejected under Art. 56. Note: it and all combinations based on it are not to be used (see App. V).
nomenclatural novelties. New names and descriptions or diagnoses of new taxa (Rec. 30A).
nomenclatural synonym. See homotypic synonym.
nomenclatural type. The element to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached (Art. 7.2).
non-fossil taxon. A taxon the name of which is based on a non-fossil type ( Pre. 7 footnote and Art. 13.3).
nothogenus. A hybrid genus (Art. 3.2).
nothomorph. A rank-denoting term formerly used for a subordinate taxon within a nothospecies. Names published as nothomorphs are now treated as names of varieties (Art. H.12.2 and footnote).
nothospecies. A hybrid species (Art. 3.2).
nothotaxon. A hybrid taxon (Art. 3.2 and H.3.1).
objective synonym. See homotypic synonym.
opera utique oppressa. Works, ruled as suppressed, in which names in specified ranks are not validly published (Art. 32.9 and App. VI).
original material. Specimens and illustrations indicated in the protologue of a name (see Art. 9 Note 2 for details).
original spelling. The spelling employed when a name was validly published (Art. 60.2).
orthographic variants. Various spelling, compounding, and inflectional forms of a name or its epithet, only one nomenclatural type being involved (Art. 61.2).
page reference. Citation of the page or pages on which the basionym or replaced synonym was validly published (Art. 33 Note 1).
paratype. A specimen cited in the protologue that is neither the holotype nor an isotype, nor one of the syntypes if two or more specimens were simultaneously designated as types (Art. 9.5).
plant. Any organism traditionally studied by botanists ( Pre. 1 footnote and Pre.7).
position. [Not defined] – used to denote the placement of a taxon relative to other taxa in a classification, regardless of rank (Prin. IV, Art. 6.6 and 11.1).
priority. A right to precedence established by the date of valid publication of a legitimate name (Art. 11) or of an illegitimate earlier homonym (Art. 45.3), or by the date of designation of a type (Art. 7.10, 7.11).
protologue. Everything associated with a name at its valid publication, i.e. description or diagnosis, illustrations, references, synonymy, geographical data, citation of specimens, discussion, and comments ( Rec. 8A footnote).
provisional name. A name proposed in anticipation of the future acceptance of the taxon concerned, or of a particular circumscription, position, or rank of the taxon (Art. 34.1).
pseudocompound. A name or epithet which combines elements derived from two or more Greek or Latin words and in which a noun or adjective in a non-final position appears as a word with a case ending, not as a modified stem (Rec.60G.1(b)) (see also compound).
rank. [Not defined] – used for the relative position of a taxon in the taxonomic hierarchy (Art.2.1).
rejected name. A name the use of which is prohibited, either by formal action under Art. 14 or 56 overriding other provisions of the Code (see nomen rejiciendum and nomen utique rejiciendum) or because it was nomenclaturally superfluous when published (Art. 52) or a later homonym (Art. 53 and 54).
replaced synonym. The name replaced by an avowed substitute (nomen novum, replacement name) (Art. 33.4).
replacement name. See avowed substitute.
sanctioned name. The name of a fungus treated as if conserved against earlier homonyms and competing synonyms, through acceptance in one of two sanctioning works (Art. 15).
special form (forma specialis). A taxon of parasites, especially fungi, characterized from a physiological standpoint but scarcely or not at all from a morphological standpoint, the nomenclature of which is not governed by this Code (Art. 4 Note 4).
specimen. A gathering, or part of a gathering, of a single species or infraspecific taxon made at one time, disregarding admixtures (Art. 8.2).
status. (1) Nomenclatural standing with regard to effective publication, valid publication, legitimacy, and correctness (Art. 6 and 12.1). (2) Rank of a taxon within the taxonomic hierarchy (see status novus) (Art. 7.4).
status novus (stat. nov.). Assignment of a taxon to a different rank within the taxonomic hierarchy, e.g. when an infraspecific taxon is raised to the rank of species or the inverse change occurs (Art. 7.4, Rec. 21B.4 and 24B.2).
subdivision of a family. Any taxon of a rank between family and genus (Art. 4 Note 1).
subdivision of a genus. Any taxon of a rank between genus and species (Art. 4 Note 1).
subjective synonym. See heterotypic synonym.
superfluous name. A name applied to a taxon circumscribed by the author to definitely include the type of a name which ought to have been adopted, or of which the epithet ought to have been adopted under the rules (Art. 52.1).
synonym. A name considered to apply to the same taxon as the accepted name (Art. 7.2).
syntype. Any specimen cited in the protologue when there is no holotype, or any of two or more specimens simultaneously designated as types (Art. 9.4).
tautonym. A binary combination in which the specific epithet exactly repeats the generic name (Art. 23.4).
taxon (taxa). A taxonomic group at any rank (Art. 1.1).
taxonomic synonym. See heterotypic synonym.
teleomorph. Meiotic sexual morph in pleomorphic fungi (Art. 59.1).
type. See nomenclatural type.
validate. [Not defined] – to make valid, used in the context of valid publication of a name, either with reference to an existing designation (e.g. Art. 42 Ex. 1), or in describing the method by which this is effected (e.g. Rec. 32A.1).
validly published name. A name effectively published and in accordance with Art. 32-45 or H.9 (Art. 6.2).
voted example. An Example mandated by a Congress to be inserted in the Code in order to legislate nomenclatural practice when the corresponding Article is open to divergent interpretation or does not adequately cover the matter (as contrasted with other Examples provided by the Editorial Committee) (Art. 7 Ex. 10 footnote).
(c) 2006, by International Association for Plant Taxonomy. This page last updated 23.03.2007 .